Authors are requested to submit their manuscripts and a brief summary describing the author’s academic qualifications and publications history to the journal’s secretariat ( Article manuscripts should include an abstract of 200-500 words, which outlines the central thesis of the article. Articles between 4,000-12,000 words, approximately 15-40 double-spaced pages, are preferred. A table of contents is recommended, especially for lengthy articles. Manuscripts for reports, comments and notes should normally range from 900 to 2700 words, approximately 3-9 double-spaced pages, in length.
The manuscript will be subject to peer-review within approximately 3-4 weeks. At the conclusion of the peer-review process the author will be notified of acceptance, need for revision, or rejection. Authors of accepted manuscripts will have the opportunity to revise the article prior to publication. The manuscript should be accompanied by an assurance that the article has not been published elsewhere. In the case of multiple authors each author will be required to sign the publication contract. Manuscripts typed in Word or compatible formats can be accommodated. Successful authors will be required to submit a copy that allows electronic editing and such manuscripts are strongly preferred. NJCL accepts manuscripts that adhere to the Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) . We ask that the manuscript adhere to a uniform system of spelling (British preferred) and the House-style outlined below.

Contact information: Editor-in-Chief, Thomas Neumann, Department of Law, University of Aalborg, 9220 Aalborg O.



Layout of the Manuscript

1. Headings and Subheadings In order to achieve clarity and preciseness in the presentation of Turku Law Journal, it is advisable to use a consistent system of headings. We would ask authors to use only three grades of headings although four can be accommodated. All nouns, verbs and adjectives on the first three levels should begin with capital letters. Do not otherwise use capital letters in headings. The following hierarchy should be used:

1. Headings. First Heading 1.1 First Subheading 1.1.1 Second Subheading (a) Third subheading (to be avoided if possible)

2. Footnotes. Authors are instructed to use automated footnotes provided in the word-processing program. Lengthy discussions in footnotes are to be avoided.

3. Emphasis. The following parts of the text should be emphasized by using italics: 1. The titles of published books, e.g. International Intellectual Property Law 2. The titles of periodicals, e.g. Common Market Law Review 3. The names of cases, e.g. Costa v. ENEL Bosman case Ratti judgment 4. Short foreign phrases or individual words, e.g. Bundesverfaßungsgericht sui generis However, words that have become part of the English language should not be italicized, e.g. de facto, ad hoc, ex officio 5. Words or phrases which the author wishes to emphasize. Emphasis by the author in a quoted passage should be explained in the corresponding footnote: (emphasis added) Emphasizing by use of Bold is to be avoided. However, if the original quoted passages already contain certain emphasized passages in italics and the author wishes to add (other) emphasis, Bold may be used. The corresponding footnote should then contain the explanation: (italic emphasis in the original, bold emphasis added) An analogous rule applies for the opposite case. Where the author wishes to omit an emphasis in a quoted passage, this should be explained in the footnote: (emphasis omitted) When these rules are followed it is normally not necessary to include the phrase ‘emphasis in the original’ in a corresponding footnote, if the author does not change the text of a quote. However, this may be done for clarification where considered necessary.

3. Punctuation. Footnote numbers should normally appear after the punctuation mark. E.g. Few now deny that there is a place for such inquiries, and some have insisted that it is an important place.2 Footnotes may appear in the middle of the sentence where necessary. E.g. Reasoning of this sort had been expressed in cases such as Saunders,3 Morson and Jhanjan4 and Moser.5 Hyphens which join composite words should be short and without space before and after the hyphen, whereas dashes which are used as commas should be long and with a space before and after the dash. Authors should print a dash with a double hyphen if necessary.

4. Quotations. Single inverted commas should be used throughout with double inverted commas being reserved for quotations within quotations. Passages of more than four lines should be printed as a separate paragraph and indented without quotation marks. Omission of words in quotations: this should be done by using three full stops, the first full stop being preceded by a space. For example, the ECJ stated: ‘Thus the distinction drawn in the Directive ... is justified’ However where the sentence is complete the closing full stop is set close up followed by three full stops. For example, The Court stated: ‘First of all, it is not possible to disregard the moral, religious or cultural aspects of lotteries, like other types of gambling, in all the Member States.... Secondly, lotteries involve a high risk of crime or fraud, given the size of the amounts which can be staked and of the winnings which they can hold out to the players, particularly when they are operated on a large scale.’

5. Abbreviations. Abbreviations should normally be followed by a full stop, e.g. No. Doc. Def. unless the abbreviation includes the last letter of the word, e.g. eds Abbreviated law reports should not be italicized, e.g. ECR WLR However, the abbreviated titles of periodicals should be italicized, e.g. NJCL CMLRev. Where the shortened form is an acronym in CAPITALS, full stops are not required, e.g. UN ECHR EU Acronyms should be in introduced when first appearing, e.g. World Trade Organization (WTO) or The Court of Justice of the European Communities (hereinafter the Court)

6. Use of Capital Letters. 1. In Acronyms EU OECD 2. When speaking of specified acts, organs etc. Directive 96/196 Article 30 ... in the Treaty of Paris ... .... the European Court of Justice went on ... in its judgment of ... the Court went on by saying ... but ... as decided by many courts in France years before ... 4. In Headings 3.1 The Wording of the Declaration

7. Use of Parentheses. Normally, authors should use single parentheses (...) for all remarks and explanations in the text and in footnotes, e.g. (emphasis added) Brackets [...] should be used in the following cases: 1. For the year of law reports, e.g. [1974] ECR 155 2. For modifications and explanatory remarks within quoted passages, e.g. The Court furthermore stressed that: ‘... [t]he general principle of freedom to pursue trade or profession cannot be interpreted in isolation from the general principles relating to protection of intellectual property rights...’ 3. If used in quoted passages, they may be retained. Braces {} should be avoided. However, they may be retained if included in quoted passages. The same applies for » «.

8. Spelling. Spelling should follow the Oxford English Dictionary or the Concise Oxford Dictionary. British English is preferred, but author's may choose American English. In any case, the choice of language should be applied consistently to the manuscript.


Citation of Treatises and Articles

The rules for italics and punctuation set out above are the same for text in footnotes. The titles in foreign languages should be followed by a translation in brackets []. Subsequent references to the same work should, preferably using the automatic function in Word, be referred to as follows: Misita, supra note *, at 243. If the same reference is cited many times it may be referred to as a short title. In this case, the abbreviation should be cited at the first reference, namely [hereinafter Distance Contract Directive]. Thereafter: Distance Contracts Directive Art. * ‘Op. cit.’ should be avoided. ‘Ibid’ is used where there are two or more consecutive references to the same work. The abbreviations Vol. and p. should not be used and may be omitted. Multiple authors Where there are more than three authors only the first author should be cited, e.g. Bernitz et al., supra note *, at 5.


Citation of UN and League of Nations Documents and Texts

1. Charter Article 13(1)(a) In footnotes, ‘Article’ may be abbreviated as ‘Art.’.

2. Cases 1. Permanent Court of International Justice Acquisition of Polish Nationality, 1923 PCIJ Series B, No. 7. 2. International Court of Justice Corfu Channel, ICJ Reports (1971) 22, at 25

3. Resolutions 1. General Assembly GA Res. 3151 (XXVIII), 14 December 1973 From the 31st session the session number is cited in arabic numbers GA Res. 41/187, 8 December 1986 2. Security Council SC Res. 770, 13 August 1992 or SC Res. 770 (1992)


Citation of ECHR Documents and Texts

1. European Convention on Human Rights Article 4(3)(c) ECHR or, if the text makes clear that the reference is to the ECHR, simply Article 4(3)(c) In footnotes ‘Article’ may be abbreviated as ‘Art.’.

2. European Court of Human Rights Vidal v. Belgium, ECHR (1992) Series A, No. 235-B, 34

3. European Commission of Human Rights Application 10881/84, R. v. Switzerland, DR 51, 83 X. and Church of Scientology v. Sweden (1979), DR 16, 68 If the applicant’s name is not disclosed (e.g. R. v. Switzerland) it is essential that the application number or at least the year is quoted in all references.


Citation of EC Documents and Texts

1. European Court of Justice Case C-267/91 and 268/91, Keck, [1993] I ECR 6097. or ..., para 10 of judgment. or Joined cases C-267/91 and 268/91, Criminal Proceedings against Keck and Mithouard, [1993] ECR 6097, at 6121. or Advocate General ... in joined cases ..., [1993] ECR 6097, at 6099. The case name can either be the full name as published in the ECR or an abbreviated version of the full name if it is commonly used and unequivocal. It should be printed in italics. References to specific passages should be made by paragraph (‘para’) for the judgment and for the AG opinion if it has numbered paragraphs and by page (‘at ...’) in all other cases. ECJ judgments should never be quoted from other sources than the ECR unless they have not yet been published in the ECR. In this exceptional case, sources such as CMLR, original printed paper versions from the ECJ or (if no other source available) printed cases from the ECJ’s www-pages may be quoted. Examples for quotations of very recent judgments: Case C-200/96, ..., judgment of 28 April 1998, not yet published. or Case ..., judgment of (date), [1998] 2 CMLR 572 (not yet published in the ECR).

2. Council, Commission and European Parliament Documents (vaihda esimerkit) Council Regulation 99/63, OJ 1963 L 127/2268 Commission Directive 64/221, OJ 1964 56/850 EP Resolution of 29 May 1990, OJ 1990 C 157/3 Council Decision 94/114, OJ 1994 L 54/25 All regulations, directives and decisions should be cited with their number and their publication in the Official Journal (OJ). The date of their adoption and their full or abbreviated title (if a commonly used abbreviation exists) may be added. The date of their publication in the OJ should not be quoted unless it is of importance of its own.


Citation of National Documents and Texts

National documents and texts including law journals should be cited in accordance with established national traditions. Translation to English should follow in brackets [] when necessary. A short title in English can be used if the the term appears often. Kuluttajansuojalaki [hereinafter consumer protection law]